A list of words and expressions related to Britain
The Celtic Fringe
The areas where the Celts were forced to by the Romans (to Scotland Wales and Ireland).
The Anglo-Saxons
The Anglo-Saxon came from Germany and Denmark, and brought with them their language. (Grammar and vocabulary)
The Romans
Had little influence on the English language.
The Vikings
Came from Scandinavia, also had a influence on the English language.(especially the description of landscape and agriculture and the words THEY, THEIR, THEM.
The Normans
Came from France and brought with them a lot of words about culture, food and administration.(eks. Government)
Old English
(450-1100) Anglo-Saxon languages.
Middle English
(1100-1500) Anglo-Saxon languages, mixed with French- a transformation and development of the language.
Early Modern English
(1500-1700) A development towards a more standardized language, at least the written language
Modern/Present day English
(1700->) Development towards present day English, including American English, Australian English and other local varieties
The feudal system
A class system introduced by William the Conqueror. This is a hierarchy that gives a lot of power and wealth to the ones who are high up in the system.
The Golden Age
(1558-1603) The period Elizabeth was queen. In this period, England establishes itself as a major naval power. Land in America is explored
The Industrial Revolution (1760->)
New technology-> factories-> people moved into cities to get to work (urbanisation)-> Britain had rich access to raw materials-> Britain produced enormous amounts of industrial goods-> the British economy boomed
The Victorian Age
(1837-1901) The period Victoria was queen. England became a superpower. British power, wealth and influence reached its peak. Britain had enjoyed a steady industrial development, following the Industrial Revolution.
National Health Service, founded in 1948.
Conservative, use measurements like feet, yards and miles, refuses to introduce the Euro
Class consciousness
Upper class (gentry=lords and ladies) – middle class (higher education) – working class (employed in trade and industry)
The Irish Civil War
The division of Ireland lead to a war. One part wanted nothern Ireland to be a part of the republic of Ireland while the other part accepted the Anglo-Irish treaty.
The Irish Free State
A state established in 1922 after the Anglo-Irish treaty. The reason was the Irish resistance against the British rule.
A name for a person who wants to remain part of the United Kingdom.
A person who wants a united Ireland
The Irish Republic Army. A paramilitary organisation that works for a free and united Ireland.
The Partition of Ireland
Since 1690, there has been unrest in Ireland. The Irish have wanted independence from England/Britain. As a compromise Ireland was split in two in 1921. The partition: The southern part became an independent republic – The Republic of Ireland. The northern part remained a member of the United Kingdom, and is controlled from London.

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